volume 1
Edited by
K.G. Mukerji
Department of Botany
University of Delhi
Delhi, India
A.K. srivastava
Environmental Microbiology Division
Industrial Toxicology Research Centre
Lucknow, india
K.P. Singh
Preventive Toxicology Division
Industrial Toxicology Research Centre
Lucknow, India
K.L. Garg
Biodeterioration Division
National Research Labortory for
Censervation of Cultural Property
Lucknow, india


Certain areas in all the scientific disciplines have changed dramatically in the past few decades, while other areas in the same discipline have remained static. Evaluative specturm during the past two decades in the field of medical mycology has swelled markedly due to transplant surgery and the use of corticosteroid, antbiotic and immunosuppressive therapy. Fungal infections, very rare, are common mycoses today and several of the fungi that infects human beings are known to infect various animals as well. The advances made in Medical

Mycology in the recent past are encapsulated in the present volume “Advances in Medical Mycology” (AMM) Written in honour of Dr. O.P. Srivastava, former head, division of Medical Mycology, Central Drug Research Institute (CDRI), Lucknow, on his superanuation and as a humble dedication to his significant and unique researches in the field of Medical Mycology (MM).

This festschrift volume of AMM contains 13 outstanding contributions from reputed scientists, spread the world over, which deal with significant achievements made in recent years in the area of mycotic infections. The book covers host defence mechanisms against yeast pathogens, rhinosporidiosis, keratinophilic fungi, mould allergy, keratomycoses, oral mycoses, animal mycoses, aflatoxicosis,histopathologic and immunohistopathologic diagnosis etc.

Hopefully, this volume should be able to brovide the latest advances and viewpoints made in the area of medical mycology to scientists, teachers, students and the members of the medical will also provide stimulus for further interesting
researches in this discipline.


Dr. O.P. Srivastava: A Brief Biography

1. Host Defence Mechanisms Against yeast Pathogens

Yoshimura Fukazawa and keiko kagaya
B.Pathogenic factors in medically important fungi
a. Evasion mechanisms of fungi from host defense
1. Intracellular Parasitism
2. Extracellular Parasitism
b. Adhesins
c. Dimorphism
d. Biochemical Properties
e. Immunosuppressive activity
C.General host defense mechanisms against fungal infectons
a. Non- specific defense mechanisms
b. Immune defense mechanisms
D.Mechanisms of resistance to infections with yeast pathogens
a. Candidiasis
b. Cryptococcosis
E.Concluding remarks

2. Infections Caused bY Rhinosporidium Seeberi
B.Geographical surveys
C.Life history and structure of R. seeberi
D.Ultrastructural features
E.Source of infection and mode of transmission
H.Predisposing factors
I.Clinical presentation

3. keratinophilic Fungi: An Appraisal of Different Aspects

Madhu shukla and P.k. Shukla
B.Habitat and geographical distribution
C.Digestion of keratin
D.Pathogenic status and potential
E.Immunological studies
F.Sensitivity to antimycotics

4. Mould Allergy- An Overview
A.k. Srivastava
B.Allergens and their nature
D.Inhalation and deposition of fungal spores/
E.Allergens and their fate in lungs
G.Mechanism of anaphylaxes
I.Discussion and conclusion

5. Epidemiology and Laboratory Diagnosis of Keratomycosis
Philip Aloysius Thomas
B.Aetiologic agents
a. Filamentous fungi
b. Yeast, yeast- like and dimorphic fungi
D.Diagnosis of mycotic keratitis
a. Clinical features
b. Microbiological investigations
c. Histopathologic studies
E.Management of mycotic keratitis
a. Medical
b. Surgical

6. Oral Mycotic Diseases
Ramesh kumar Pandey,
G.North American Blastomycosis
K.South American Blastomycosis

7. Veterinary Mycology in india: A Review

Rishendra Verma and P.K.R. Iyer

a. Mammalian aspergillosis
b. Avain aspergillosis
H.Epizootic lymphangitis
I.Mycotic Mastitis
J.Mycoses of the reproductive tract
K.Miscellaneous mycosis
L.Antifungal drugs and other chemical agents

8. Dermatomycoses in India with Special Reference to Rajasthan

D.Williamson and S. Radhika Iyer
B.Taxonomic Status of dermatophytes
C.Brief background
D.Significant contributions

.9. Health Risk Associated with Fungal Agents from Sludge
A.K. Srivastava, k.L. Garg and Neelima Garg
B.Fungal flogra of sludge
C.Seasonal Variation
D.Potential harmful effects of pathogenic fungi
a. Aspergillosis
b. Aflatoxicosis
c. Otomycosis
d. Candidiasis
e. Phaeohyphomycosis
f. Geotrichosis
g. Hyalohyphomycosis
E.Discussion and conclusion

10. Animal Mycoses in India
D.P. Monga
b.Superficial mycosesc.
D.. Blastomycosis
E. Mycotic mastitis
F.Fungi in various reproductive disorders
G.. Repeat breeding metritis and other reproductive disorders
H.Mycotic infection of the ear

11. Aflatoxins and Human Health
P.K. Ray, K.P. Singh and S. Raisuddin
B.General Characteristics of aflatoxins
C.Occurrence of aflatoxins
D.Toxicity to animals
E.Routes of exposure to human beings
G.Aflatoxins and human health
a. Chronic toxicity of aflatoxins in man
b. Acute toxicity of aflatoxins in man
H.Global implications of aflatoxin problem
12. Histopathologic and Immunohistologic Diagnosis of Mycotic Diseases
Francis W. Chandler
B.Histologic Stains for demonstrating fungi
C.Identification of fungi in tissue sections
D.Immunofluorescence: Diagnostic application and
E.current status
13. Medical Mycology in Indian Context: Comment,Conclusion and Suggestion
Neelima Mittal, A.k. Srivastava and K.G. Mukerji
B.Medical mycology in india
C.Clinical types, symptoms and causative agent
E.Some important books and journals for medical


1. Pathogenesis of Candida albicans infection.
R.B. Ashman, A. Fulurija J. M. Papadimitriou
2. The role of antifungal drug evaluation in vitro in the treatment of mycoses
F.C. Odds.
3. Paranasal sinus mycoses
A. Chakrabarti, S.C. Sharma, N. Panda, A. Das
4. Regulation of phospholipid metabolism in dermatophyte- Microsporum gypseum
G.K. Khuller, A. Bindra
5. Human mycotic infections in Sri Lanka-new trends and challenge
M.C. Attapattu
6. Medical mycology in india: retropectives and prospectives
J. Naidu, S.M. Singh
7. Current perspectives in mycotic keratitis: diagnosis, management and pathogenesis
P. A. Thomas, P. Geraldine J.Kaliamurthy
8. Allergic aspergillosis: antigens and immunodiagnosis
V. P. Kurup, B. Banerjee
9.Diagnosis of mycotic Keratitis: an overview
P.K. Shukla, P. Singh
10.Antifungal drugs: a review
P.K. Shukla, P. Khajanchi
11. Subject index



Sponsored by Central Drug Research Institute & Indian Society for Parasitology

Parasitic Diseases are among the major public health problems of tropical countries including india. They infect man and also severally invade domestic animals and wild-life. Non-availability of satisfactory drugs and immunoprophylactic measures pose a serious problem in the treatment and Prevention of these diseases. In addition, the resurgence of diseases like malaria, once considered to be eradicated, due to the development of drug resistance by the parasite has made the situation more grave. Development of effective drugs against sensitive and resistant strains and other control measures are therefore, immediately required. For this a clear understanding of parasite physiology, host-parasite relationship, mode of action of drugs, mechanism of drug resistance, pathophysiology and immune response is of upmost importance. The non-availability of model parasites in quantities sufficient for these studies deters the much expected progress in this field. To alleviate the problem of parasite scarcity each laboratory should have persons well trained in the maintenance and cultivation of the parasites of its interest.

With this aim a two weeks’(November 28 - December 10, 1994) workshop on “Cultivation of Parasites of Biomedical Importance” has been organised at C.D.R.I.,Lucknow in collaboration with the Indian Society for Parasitology. Considering the importance of the subject, the Department of Biotechnology, Government of India and U.P. Council of Science & Technology have very kindly agreed to provide financial support to the workshop.The Workshop offers intensive training in the maintenance, transmission in vitro cultivation, cryopreservation etc,of important experimental parasites and their vectors. The training is supported by lectures by eminent parasitologists providing an overview of the existing knowledge in epidemiology, life cycle, physiology, control measures etc, as well as problems and challenges in malaria, filariasis, leishmaniasis, helminthiasis, amoebiasis and giardiasis. it is hoped that this training would enable the scientific task force Available in the country to be well equipped for facing the challenges in combating these diseases.

We are grateful to the contributors for their full cooperation in the workshop and for providing their manuscripts in time.

1. Status of Parasitic Diseases in India
V.P. Sharma
2. Aids and Conomitant Parasitic and other Infections
A.R. Sircar and P.K. Murthy
3. Cryopreservatition of Parasites


U.V. Wagh
4.Filariasis: An Overview
R.K. Chatterjee and Som Nath Singh
5. Animal Models in Filarial Research
Shailja Misra and P.K. Murthy
6. Enteric Helminthiasis: A Socio-economic problem
J.C. Katiyar and Suman Gupta
7. Helminthiasis of Animals
Md. Hafeez
8. Test Models for Enteric Helminthiasis
Suman Gupta and J.K. Srivastava

9. Major Haemoprotozoan Diseases of Veterinary Importance
R.P. Gupta
10. Transmission Dynamics of Leishmaniasis
K. Kishore, A. Palit, V. Kumar, S. Kesari, D.S. Dinesh and S.K. Kar
11. Leishmaniasis: A Curse of Poverty
J.C. Katiyar and Anuradha
12. Cultivation and Experimental Models of Leishmania donovani
P.Y. Guru and Anuradha

Amoebiasis and Giardiasis
13. Parasitic Diarrhoea
N.K. Ganguly, S. Gorowara and R.C. Mahajan
14. State of Art of In vitro Cultivation of Pathogenic Amoebae
R.K. Mehlotra, U. Pandya, J.K. Saxena and O.P. Shukla
15. Cultivation of Giardia and Amoeba Parasites
S. Ghoshal and A.K. Agarwal


16. Streategies for Anti-malarial Drug Development and Contrrol of Drug Resistant Malaria
G.P. Dutta, V. Bhakuni, S. Dutta and S.K. Puri
17. Pathophysiology of Red Cell Loss in Malaria with Special Reference to Oxidative Stress
R.C. Mahajan, N.K. Ganguly, M.L. Dubey & K. Mohan
18. Experimental Models in Malaria Research

S.K. Puri and G.P. Dutta
19. In vitro Cultivation and Cryopreservation of Blood Stages of Malaria Parasites
C.R. Pillai
20. In vitro Cultivation of Malaria Parasite
K.K. Kamboj
21. In vitro Cultivation of Exoerythrocytic Stages of Plasmodium berghei
K.K. Kamboj





About The Book

SAARC countries have ever been rich in Natural Resources which provided unpolluted, healthy and sustainable environment. During past few decades, there has been a regular disturbance and depletion of Natural Resources to meet the increasing food damand, extraction of fire wood from forests for cooking, Urbanisation and other developmental activities including house, road and canel construction, and in feeding of raw materials to developed countries. In order to maintain human viable environment and ecological balance, and for the proper management of Natural resources in SAARC countries, there is urgent need of advance future planning to minimize such disturbances in environment. This Unique volume describes ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS DISCUSSED DURING SAARC MEETS on ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT among 350 delegates from all over world; comprehensive account on CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL POLLUTANTS with their impact on CROPS and HUMAN SUBJECTS particularly in relation to ALLERGY; detail overview of ATMOSPHERIC DIFFUSION MODELING deit with various type of atmospheric dispersion models developed in the centre of Planning, management and decision making, particularly in reference with SITING OF INDUSTRIES, VEHICULAR TRAFFIC,: ZONING FOR TOXIC AND INFLAMMABLE MATERIALS; detail information on ENVIRONMENT QUALITY MANAGEMENT for a large sector of INDUSTRIES and much more.

This book AIR AND ITS MANAGEMENT will be highly useful as an outstanding reference for ENVIRONMENTALISTS, INDUSTRIALISTS and SCIENTISTS engaged in ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES. It will also provide a strong stimulus to persons not engaged in Environmental Studies but a bonafied citizen to save SAARC ENVIRONMENT.

With this view the present volume AIR AND ITS MANAGEMENT has been edited and released.

Chief Editor
Dr. A.K.Sinha
Botany Department,
Feroze Gandhi college,
Rae-Bareli- 229 001, India
Dr. D.P. Pande
Chemistry Department
Feroze Gandhi college,
Rae-Bareli- 229 001, India
Dr. Rakesh Kumar
Botany Department
Feroze Gandhi college,
Rae-Bareli- 229 001, India
Dr. Ram Boojh
Environment Directorate,
Jawahar Bhawan,
Lucknow- 226 001, India

Raison-de-atre:A.K. Sinha
Welcome address:O.N.Bhargava Inaugural address: N.D. Tewari
Key note address: T.N. Khoshoo
Presidential address: K.K. Bhargava
Vote of thanks: M.C. Johari
Technical Papers

1.A. Arul and M. Vivekanandan
Effective utilisation of cement exhaust dust by planting resistant crops.
2.Subodh Kumar Gupta and Kamlesh Kumar
The impact of cement dust on Vegetation.
3.Medha S. Naik
Dispersion of pollutants in the vicinity of elevated sources.
4.R.N. Trivedi and M. Roy
Phytopathogenic and Allergic dimensions of environmental biopollution.
5.V.S. Sai
Penalization index for monitoring Environmental pollution
6.S.H. Raza, M. S. R. Murthy, O. Bhagyalakshmi and G. Shylaja
Plants in indicating, Monitoring and diluting Air pollution.
7.S.K. Pandey
Corrosion through Atmospheric pollution (Sulphur dioxide effect on experimental weevil Callosobruchus
chinensis(L.)Bruchidae: Coleoptera).
8.R.M. Tripathi, R.N. Khandekar and K.S.V. Nambi
An assessment of Environmenal pollution due to heavy metals in Greater Bombay.
9.J. Pandey and M. Agarwal
Effect of Nitrogen dioxide on growth and yield of Tomato.
10.M. Zafar Iqbal
Influence of Automobile pollution on trees and future plantations in the Urban areas.
11.Ajit K. Srivastava, Rakesh Kumar and A.K. Sinha
Plants As agents in reducing air pollution at Rae Bareli- A case study.
12.Suman Cherian and S.M. Khopkar
Trace Metal analysis in Aerosols.
13.G. P. Pandey
Foliar response versus Fluoride pollution in tropical Dry deciduous forest ecosystem.
14.Kamal K. Jain and M.V. Nair
Air pollution and its effect on cultural property.
15. C.S. Tripathi, S.P. Chakrabarti and G.K. Mendiratta
Air quality Management in integrated Iron and steel plants in India.
16.Gopal Krishna, R.K. Gupta, J.P. Srivastava and Suresh Chandra
Concentration of heavy metals in atmosphere and body fluids of industry workers and related
health hazards.
17.V. Bhawani Shankar and S.B. Chaphekar
Eco-Management of a Mining resion.
18.Jyoti Mishra
Effects of Cement dust on some common plants.
19.Deo Narayan, J. Pandey, J. Singh and N. Khanam
Responses of Oryza sativa L. Cv. Mansuri plants to gaseous Hydrogen fluoride pollutant.
20.M. Agarwal and J. Singh
Environmental Impact and Management
Studies around Renusagar thermal Power plant.
21.M.P. Singh
Overview of atmospheric diffusion modelling.
22.M.V. Rao and P.S. Dube
Enrichment Ratio: Grass species are good accumulators of Heavy Metals from soil.
23.P.K.K. Nair
Plants and Human Allergy




(Biopollutants in Air)

Dr. A.K. Srivastava
Environmental Microbiology
Industrial Toxicology Research Centre
Lucknow- 226 001, India


The work presented in this book was carried out by author in Mycology and Plant Pathology laboratory, Department of Botany, Lucknow University, Lucknow, under the guidance of Dr. (Mrs.) K. Wadhwani, Reader in Botany, from November 1982 to October 1986.

The book deals with air borne fungal spora of various outdoor and indoor working environment including the crop fields. The study of air borne organisms broadly comes under aerobiology which concerns with transportation of the pollen being relevant in reproductive biology and fungal spores which affect the plants in cropfields as well as human being working in different environments. Other organisms areviruses, bacteria, algae, protozoans invertebrate, moss, fern spores, minute seeds and many plants and animal fragments.

Present comprehensive treatment on aeromycology is mainly restricted to the impact of air borne fungal spores on plants, their occurrence in micro and macro environment in the disease development. While impact on human beings relates with the occurrence of air borne fungal spores in their ear wax or otitis media (otomycosis), their association with both the symptomatic and asymptomatic nails and their allergenic effect.

The book has been divided into three sections. Section I deals with occurrence, distribution and identification of fungal spores entraped in aeroscope and colonies obtained in petridishes. The dispersal of spores in air at different times of a year was statistically analysed through coefficient of variation (cv). On the basis of cv, their consistency in atmosphere is discussed. Section II includes the relative abundance of fungal spores in micro and macro environment and their impact on some crop diseases, such as white rust, downy mildew, leaf sports and blight of nine varieties of Brassica juncea, flower and fruit rotting of Luffa cylindrica by Choanephora cucurbitarum and Pythium indicum and Pod rot of Cajanus cajan by Cladosporium cladosporoides. Section III deals with the impact of these air borne fungal spores on human beings working in different environments. These are Otomycosis (ailment of ear), Onychomycosis (disease of nails) and various allergenic reactions.

The author is indebted to Dr. (Mrs.) K. Wadhwani, Reader in Botany for her valuable guidance and constant encouragement during the course of present investigations.
The author is thankful to Prof. C.P. Sharma , Head of Botany, Lucknow University, for providing laboratory facilities.

Special thanks are due to late Dr. Jafar Zamil, Reader in Tuberculosis, K.G..’s Medical College, Lucknow, for testing the allergenic reactions of these fungi to the sensitive patients.

The author is grateful to Dr. P.K.K. Nair, Deputy Director; National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, for providing Aeroscope, Prof. K.G. Mukerji, Botany Department, Delhi University for helping in identification of various spores and Dr. O.P. Srivastava for going through manuscript and critical suggestions.


1.1. Chronological development of Aeromycology in India
1.2. Methodology
1.3. A key for visual identification of air borne particulates
1.4. A comparative account of occurrence, distribution and diurnal pattern in morning, noon and evening of air fungal for three years

2. Impact of air borne fungi on some diseases on important crop of India

3.1. Studies on fungi from otitis media of agricultural field workers
3.2. Fungi from asymptomatic and diseased nails of workers and from air of different working environments
3.3. Diagnosis to allergenic disorders based on fungal spores occurrence in air, symptom score and worst months for the patients


Edited by
Harvinder S. Sohal
Ashok K. Srivastava

Biotechnology covers a wide specturm of specialised disciplines which includes not only the latest genetic engineering techniques but also old fermentation process which our forefathers practised thousands of years ago. In recent years there has been tremendous development in this field and it has gained great importance-specially in the eyes of public.

We are grateful to authors for sharing extreme forbearance as it took more than the expected time to bring out this volume. We thank all the contributors and publishers for their efforts to make this publication successful.

The editors are indebted to Dr. S. Ramchandran, former secretary, Department of Biotechnology, Government of India for his help and guidance in preparation of this volume. Dr. M.V. Nair, Director, NRLC LKO is gratefully acknowledged for providing infrastructure facilities and constant encouragement.

We sincerely hope that readers will be immensly benefited from this book.

1.Aquaculture Improvement Through Biotechnology
-A. Ninawe
2.Safety and Regulatory Arrangements in Biotechnology
-K. Narayanaswami
3.Biotechnology and its Legal Implications
-K. Narayanaswami
4.Taming the Hepatitis-B Virus: Biotechnologists
Win a Battle
-C.A. Sivaraman
5.Azolla-Anabaena Symbiosis - A Potential
Biofertilizer for Rice
-S. Kannaiyan
-K. Narayanaswami
7.Applications of Biotechnology to Chemical Production
-Asha Juwarkar and P. Sudhakar Babu
8.Role of Monoclonal Antibodies in Diagnosis and Protection in Lymphatic Filariasis
-Pradeep B. Parab and D. Subrahamanyam
9.Inducing Herbicide Resistance: An Application of Biotechnology
-A.K. Mathur
10.Biotechnology for Improvement in Agriculture
-Renu Swarup and H.K. Srivastava
11.Recombinant Live Viral Vaccines
-K.K. Tripathi and C.A. Sivaraman
12. Genetic Engineering Approaches to Virus
Resistance in Plants
-Nand Lal
13. Bioinformatics and Biotechnology
-Margaret Biswas
14. Baculovirus Vectors for High Level Expression of Foreign
Genes in Insect Cells and Caterpillars
-Prakash K. Jha, S. Burma, B. Mukherjee and Seyed E. Hasnain
15. Role of Biotechnology in Pollution Control
-Ira Bhattacharya
16. Plant Genetic Transformation by Agrobacterium Tumefaciens
-Asma Sultana and P.S. Ahuja
17. Biotechnology in Forestry and Wasteland Development
-A.S. Juwarkar, Asha Juwarkar, A.S. Bal, P. Sudhakar Babu and
S.U. Meshram
18. Bioprocessing of Lignocellulosic Residues to Chemical Feedstock
-V.S. Bisaria


Edited by
M. V. Nair
A. K. Srivastava
Sunit Gupta

The Impact of bio- pollutants on the environment is man’s basic problem. The causal agents of illness and stress can be of chemical, physical or biological origin and have a sizeable impact on productivity. Biological contamination of environment has received great attention in recent years as a possible cause of illness at home and at work. In the present book endeavours to identify air borne fungal spore of various outdoor and indoor working environment and their effects on humanity.

It attempts to cover diverse aspects of the subject through critically reviewed papers which have been contributed by experts of the relevant fields. The paper entitled’ Chronological development of Aeromycology in India with special reference to work done in Lucknow’ highlights the development of Aeromycology in India from early stages till now.

In the subsequent paper, Dr. Singh has emphasized that biological contaminants in the environment can raise concensus for the indoor air quality and the health of the occupants in addition to the damage they can cause to the bulding structure, decoration and contents.

In another paper, Dr. Prakash Kumar and his colleagues have discussed various allergic substances which cause different diseases in human beings, pollen grains constitutes the major elements. Though most grains are capable of eliciting allergic reactions, the intensity of their reactivity varies.

Dr. Gupta throws light on various microorganisms present in indoor environment and their relationship with the occupants. These microorganisms originate from different materials such as fecal material, soil, pesticidal, chemical, dusts, cereal grains, animal feed and even from air conditioning systems.

According to Dr. Walter bio-deterioration and bio-degradation have an important role to play for the forensic scientists who must understand how the environment alters the evidences. He must be aware of how environment effects can interfere with his ability to identify evidence.

The organic pigments produced by certain microorganisms produce red spots on the stone artwork, according to Dr. Sorlini these microorganisms are difficult to identify because they modify their physical and morphological characters very soon.

The book encompasses a wide range of contents and as such it is expected to be of much interest to a vast spectrum of scholars.

Finally, we shall fail in our duty, if we do not express our gratitude to the distinguished contributors of this volume who have responded to the invitation warmly and spontaneously. The view expressed here are exclusively those of the authors and not of the institutions to which they belong.

1.Chronological Development of Aeromycology in India with Special Reference to work done in Lucknow
-A. K. Srivastava & K. Wadhwani
2.Indoor Flora and Health
-Jagjit Singh
3.Grass Pollen Hypersensitivity in India-Problems and prospects
-R. Prakash kumar, P. M. Mathew; P. K. K. Nair & Mary John
4.Indoor Aeromycology with its Impact on Occupants
-Sunit Gupta
5.Biodeterioration and Biodegradation in Forensic Science
-Walter F. Rowe
6.A Survey on the Biodeterioration of Frescoes and on the Red Spot Alteration on the Stone Artwork
-Claudia Sorlini & Elisabetta Zanardini




Dr. K.P. Singh
Dr. A.K. Srivastava

In the past 15 years there has been a tremendous increase in the production synthetic chemicals. About 700-3000 new chemicals are being added every year in the Environment and Causing alarming level of Chemical pollution. Most of the Chemicals & Particulates pollutants present in the Environment are Halogenated Aromatic Hydrocarbons, polyclic

Aromatic Hydrocarbons, n-hexane and its metabolites, Silica, Asbestos, Coal, Kaolin, fly ash, Agate Dust and Metals, and Known to cause most threatening and painful disease “CANCER” in addition to Immunotoxicity and other lungs diseases. Out of 35000 known chemicals 6000 only were tested and 1000 of them were found to be “TUMOROGENIC” in animals. THUS REMAINING 29000 CHEMICALS ARE STILL IN THE ENVIRONMENT TO BE TESTED FOR THEIR CARCINOGENIC RISK.

The present book “CHEMICAL POLLUTION” deals with the significant achievement made in the recent years in the field of ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICANTS. It covers numerous chemicals used in industries, and are toxic to man and animals;cumulative effects of such chemicals on man and Environment, and assessment of their carcinogenic risk potential. This book will be highly useful for Research Scientists, Bio-medical research Scholars, Environmentalists, Teachers and Students. It will also provide a stimulus for the further interesting researchers in the discipline of ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICANTS.

List of Tables and Figures
1. Summary
2. Introduction
3. Organisation of immune system
4. Effect of environmental toxicants on immune system
5. Immunotoxicity evaluation
6. Assessment of carcinogenic risks of chemicals in the environment
7. Short-term tests for carcinomutagenicity assessment
8. References
9. Index
Appendix: List of Contributors